ADVICE TO SIGALA

Domestic and Social Relations

Sigalovada-sutta

Abridged

Thus has I heard. The Blessed One was once staying near Rajagaha at the Squirrels’ Feeding –ground in the Bamboo Wood.

Now at this time Sigala, a householder’s son, rising early, went our of Rajagaha. With wet hair, wet garments and his clasped hands uplifted, he performed the rite of worship to the several quarters of earth and sky: to the east, south west, and north, to the nadir and the zenith. 1.

Early that same morning, the Blessed One dressed, took bowl and robe and entered Rajagaha seeking aims. Haw Sigala at his rite of worship and spoke to him thus:

‘Why, young householder, do you, rising early and leaving Rajagaha, you’re your hair and raiment wet, worship the several quarters of earth and sky?

‘Sir, my father, when he was on his death-bed, said to me : “Dear son, you should worship the quarters of earth and sky.” So I, sir, honouring my father’s word, reverencing, revering, holding it sacred, rise early and, leaving Rajagaha, worship in this way.’

‘But in the Discipline of the Arya Noble One, young house-holder, the six quarters should not be worshipped in this way,’

‘How then, sir, in the Discipline of the Arya, should the six quarters be worshipped ? It would be an excellent thing, if the Blessed One would so teach me the way in which according to the Discipline of the Arya, the six quarters should be worshipped.’

‘Hear then, young householder, reflect carefully and I will tell you.’

‘Yes, sir.’ responded young Sigala. And the Blessed One said:

‘Just as, young householder, the Aryan disciple has put away the four vices in conduct; just as he does no evil actions from the four motives; just as he does not make towards the six doors of dissipating wealth; avoiding these fourteen evil things, he is a guardian of the six quarters, is on his way to conquer both worlds, is successful both in this world and in the next. At the dissolution of the body, after death, he is reborn to a happy destiny in heaven,

‘What are the four vices of conduct that he has put away? The destruction of life, stealing, adultery, and lying. These are the four vices of conduct that he has put away.

‘By which four motives does he do no evil actions? Evil actions are does from motives of partiality, enmity, stupidity and fear. But as the Aryan disciple is not led away by these motives he does no actions through them.

‘And which are the six doors of dissipating wealth? Drink; frequenting the streets at unseemly hours; haunting fairs; gambling; associating with evil friends; idleness.

‘There are, young householder, these six dangers of drink: the actual loss of wealth; increase of quarrels; susceptibility to disease; an evil reputation; indecent exposure; ruining one’s intelligence.

‘Six, young householder, are the perils a man runs through frequenting the streets at unseemly hours: he himself is unguarded or unprotected and so too are his wife and children; so also is his property (wealth); in addition he falls under the suspicion of being responsible for undetected crimes; false rumours are attached to his name; he goes out to meet many troubles.

‘There are six in haunting fairs: A man keeps looking about to see where is there dancing? Where is there singing? Music? recitation? cymbal playing? The beating of tam-tams?

‘Six, young householder, are the perils of gambling: if the man wins, he is hated; if he loses, he mourns his lost wealth; waste of wealth; his word has no weight in an assembly (a court of law); he is despised by his friends and companions; he is not sought in marriage, for people will say that a man who is a gambler will never make a good husband.

‘There are six perils of associating with evil friends: any gambler, any libertine, any tippler, any cheat, any swindler, any man of violence becomes his friend and companion.

‘There are six perils in idleness: A man says, it is too cold, and does no work. He says, it is too hot, and does no work; he says, it is too earlytoo late, and does no work. He says, I am too hungry, and does no worktoo full, and does no work. And while all that he should do remains undone, he makes no money, and such wealth as he has dwindles away.

‘Four persons should be reckoned as foes in the likeness of friends: the rapacious person; the man who pays lip-service only to a friend; the flatterer; the wastrel.

‘Of these the first is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend on four grounds: he is rapacious; he gives little and expects much; he does what he has to do out of fear; he pursues his own interests.

‘On four grounds the man who pays lip-service only to a friend is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend: he makes friendly professions as regards the past; he make friendly professions as regards the future; the only service he renders is by his empty sayings; when the opportunity for service arises he shows his unreliability.

‘On four grounds the flatterer is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend: he approves your bad deeds, as well as your good deeds; he praises you to your face, and in your absence he speaks ill of you.

‘On four grounds the wastrel is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend : he is your companion when you go drinking; when you frequent the streets at untimely hours; when you haunt shows and fairs; when you gamble.

‘The friends who should be reckoned as good-hearted (friends) are four: the helper; the friend who is constant in happiness and adversity; the friend of good counsel; the sympathetic friend.

‘The friend who is a helper is to be reckoned as good-hearted on four grounds: he protects you when you are taken unawares; he protects your property when you are not there to protect it; he is a refuge to you when you are afraid; when you have tasks to perform he provides twice as much help as you may need.

‘The friend who is constant in happiness and adversity is to be reckoned as good-hearted on four grounds: he tells you his secrets; he does not betray your secrets; in your troubles he does not forsake you; for your sake he will even lay down his life.

‘The friend of good counsel isgood-hearted on four grounds: he restrains you from doing wrong; he enjoins you to (do what is) right; from him you learn what you had not learnt before; he shows you the way to heaven.

‘The friend who is sympathetic is to be reckoned as good-hearted on four grounds: he does not rejoice over your misfortunes; he rejoices with you in your prosperity; he restrains those who speak ill of you; he commends those who speak well of you.

‘And how, young householder, does the Aryan disciple protect (guard) the six quarters? 2. The following should be looked upon as the six quarters: parents as the east; reachers as the south; wife and children as the west; friends and companions as the north; servants and employees as the nadir; recluses and brahmins (the religieux) as the zenith.

‘A child should minister to his parents as the eastern quarter in five ways (saying to himself): Once I was supported by them, now I will be their support; I will perform those duties they have to perform; I will maintain the lineage and tradition of my family; I will look after my inheritance; and I will give alms (perform religious rites) on behalf of them (when they are dead).

‘Parents thus ministered to by their children as the eastern quarter, show their love for them in five ways: they restrain them from evil; they direct them towards the good; they train them to a profession; they arrange suitable marriages for them; and in due time, they hand over the inheritance to them.

‘In this way the eastern quarter is protected and made safe and secure for him.

‘A pupil should minister to his teachers as the southern quarter in five ways: by rising (from his seat, to salute them); by waiting upon them; by his eagerness to learn; by personal service; and by respectfully accepting their teaching.

Teachers, thus ministered to as the southern quarter by their pupil, show their love for their pupil in five ways: they train him well; they make him grasp what he has learnt; they instruct him thoroughly in the lore of every art; they introduce him to their friends and companions; they provide for his security everywhere.

‘In this way the southern quarter is protected and made safe and secure for him.

‘A wife as western quarter should be ministered to by her husband in five ways: by respecting her; by his courtesy; by being faithful to her: by handing over authority to her; by providing her with adornment (jewellery, etc.).

‘The wife ministered to by her husband as the western quarter, loves him in these five ways: by doing her duty well; by hospitality to attendants, etc.; by her fidelity; by looking after his earnings; and by skill and industry in all her business dealings.

‘In this way the western quarter is protected and made safe and secure for him.

‘In five ways a member of a family should minister to his friends and companions as the northern quarter: by generosity; by courtesy; by benevolence; by equality (treating them as be treats himself); and by being true to his word.

‘Thus ministered to as the northern quarter, his friends and companions love him in these five ways: they protect him when he is in need of protection; they look after his property when he is unable to; they become a refuge in danger; they do not forsake him in his troubles; and they respect even others related to him.

‘In this way the northern quarter is protected and made safe and secure for him.

‘A master ministers to his servants and employees as the nadir in five ways: by assigning them work according to their capacity and strength; by supplying them with food and wages; by tending them in sickness; by sharing with them unusual delicacies; and by giving them leave and gifts at suitable times.

‘In these ways ministered to by their master, servants and employees love their master in five ways: they wake up before him; they go to bed after him; they take what is given to them; they do their work well; and they speak well of him and give him a good reputation.

‘In this way is the nadir protected and made safe and secure for him.

‘A member of a family (a layman) should minister to recluses and brahmins (the ueligieux) as the zenith in five ways: by affectionate acts; by affectionate words; by affectionate thoughts; by keeping open house for them; by supplying them with their wordly needs.

‘In this way ministered to as the zenith, recluses and brahmins show their love for the members of the family (laymen) in six ways: they keep them from evil; they exhort them to do good; they love them with kindly thoughts; they teach them what they have not learnt; they correct and refine what they have learnt; they reveal to them the way to heaven.

‘In this way is the zenith protected and made safe and secure for him.’

When the Blessed One had thus spoken, Sigala the young householder said this: ‘Excellent’ Sir, excellent! It is as if one should set upright what had been turned upside down, or reveal what had been hidden away, or show the way to a man gone astray, or bring a lamp into darkness so that those with eyes might see things there. In this manner the Dhamma is expounded by the Blessed One in many ways. And I take refuge in the Blessed One, in the Dhamma and in the Community of Bhikkhus. May the Blessed One receive me as his lay-disciple, as one who has taken his refuge in him from this day forth as long as life endures.’

Digha-Nikaya, No. 31

 

1. Performing the rite of worship of the different quarters of the external world, invoking, for protection, the mighty spirits or gods inhabiting them, was an old ritual according to the Vedic tradition . The Buddha, who disapproves and condemns such superstitious, old practices, gives them new meanings and interpretations, according to the persons to whom he speaks. Of .’The Parable of the Piece of Cloth’ where be speaks to a brahmin of the ‘inner bath’ instead of ‘sacred baths in holy rivers’.(p. 108)   

         

 2. Now the Buddha explains to Sigala what the six quarters are and bow to ‘worship’ them according to the ‘Discipline of the Arya (Noble One)’ by way of performing one’s duties and obligations towards them, instead of performing the ritual worship according to the old Brahmanic tradition. If the ‘six quarters’ are ‘protected’ in this way, they are made safe and secure, and no danger would come from there. Brahmins too worshipped the quarters of the external world to prevent any danger coming from the spirits or gods inhabiting them.             

 

 

善生經

家庭和社會關係

[ 摘要 ]

 

如是我聞:當時,世尊正住在王舍城(Rajagaha)附近、一個竹林內的松鼠飼養埸。

一次,一個管家的兒子名叫施嘉那。他很早起床,走出王舍城。當時,他的頭髮

衣服都濕了。他高舉合十的手掌,向東方、向南方、向西方、向北方,以及天底和天頂膜拜 1

那天清早,世尊穿了衣服、拿著衣缽,正要進入王舍城去乞討布施,看見施嘉那還在膜拜,於是對施嘉那說:

年輕的管家,為什麼你要那麼早走出王舍城,使到頭髮、衣服都濕了地向天地各方膜拜呢?

先生,當家父彌留的時候,他對我說:‘親愛的兒子,你一定要膜拜天地各方。’先生,為了實踐家父的囑咐,所以我便恭恭敬敬地這樣子很早起床,走出王舍城向天地各方膜拜。”

年輕的管家,按照雅利安貴族的規律,天地各方是不能這樣膜拜的。

 “先生,那麼按照雅利安貴族的規律,天地各方應該怎能樣膜拜呢?如果聖者可以指導我按照雅利安貴族的規律,天地各方應該怎能樣膜拜,就好極了!

那麼,年輕的管家,好好地聆聽和考慮。我要開始啦!年青的施嘉那回應 好啊,先生!

世尊說了以下的話:“年輕的管家,就像雅利安貴族規律的子弟已經捨棄了行為中四類惡習;沒有做由四類動機引發出來的惡行;也沒有走向揮霍的六度門;一位雅利安子弟能夠避開這十四種惡行,他其實已經是這六度門的看守人,已經踏上征服兩個世界的大道,也可以在這個和未來那個世界都能夠取得成就。當他死後,軀體融化時,他已再生到天堂的極樂。

什麼是他已經捨棄的行為中四類惡習呢?自殺、偷竊、通姦、說謊,這些就是他已經捨棄的行為中四類惡習。

他沒有做惡行,什麼是引發這些惡行的四類動機呢?惡行被偏袒、敵意、愚昧、恐懼引發出來。既然這位雅利安子弟沒有讓這些動機誘惑,所以他沒有做由它們引發出來的惡行。

 

而什麼是走向揮霍的六度門昵?飲酒、不適時在街上留連、耽溺歡場、賭博、結交損友、懶散。                      

年輕的管家,飲酒可以帶來六種危害:財產的實際損失、爭吵的增加、疾病的感染、名譽的損壞、猥褻的暴露、智力的損毀。

六種,年輕的管家,總共有六種危害,如果一個人不適時在街上留連:不但自己沒有保障,連妻兒,以致財產都沒有保障;而且會被懷疑與未偵破的罪案有關連;自己的名字與謠言牽連;也碰上很多麻煩。

這些就是因為耽溺歡場而帶來的危害:一個人不斷地打聽看看那裡有跳舞?那裡有唱歌?音樂?說書?玩鐃鈸?打鑼鼓?

六種,年輕的管家,總共有六種因為賭博而帶來的危害,如果一個人贏了、他被人憎恨;如果輸了、他感到哀痛而又虛耗了財富;在法庭裡,他的話再不被人看重;他被朋友和伙伴鄙視;無人會嫁他,因為所有人都說賭徒永遠做不成好丈夫。

結交損友帶來六種危害:任何賭徒、無賴、酒鬼、騙子、冒名者、暴徒變成他的朋友和伙伴。

懶散帶來六種危害:他說:天氣太冷了,他便什麼也不做。他說:天氣太熱了,他便什麼也不做。太早了……太遲了,他便什麼也不做。他說:太餓了,他便什麼也不做……太飽了,他便什麼也不做。當他發覺所有應該做的,他都沒做,也沒賺錢。於是他的財產便漸漸減少。

 

有四種人,他們看來好像朋友,其實卻是敵人:貪婪的人、口惠而實不至的人、拍馬屁的人、揮霍無度的人。

其中,可以從四個角度去確定誰是第一個看來好像朋友,其實卻是敵人:他貪婪,付出少、需索卻多,做什麼都是因為懼怕、他只追求自己的興趣。

可以從四個角度去確定口惠而實不至的人是看來好像朋友,其實卻是敵人:談及以前,他裝作很熟絡;談及將來,他裝作很熟絡;但能夠幫忙的只是空言;當真正需要他的幫忙時,他便露出靠不住。

可以從四個角度去確定拍馬屁的人是看來好像朋友,其實卻是敵人:他贊同你的壞行為、以及好行為;他就在你的面前稱讚你、卻在你不在的時候詆譭你。

可以從四個角度去確定揮霍無度的人是看來好像朋友,其實卻是敵人:他陪你去飲酒、不適時在街上留連、耽溺歡場以至賭博。

有四種人,他們是善良的朋友:樂於助人的人、不論在順境或逆境都能保持穩定的人、提出忠告的人、有同情心的人。

可以從四個角度去確定誰是樂於助人的朋友:當你冷不防被人乘機時,他會保護你。當你不能在場保護財物時,他會保護它。當你害怕的時候,他給你慰藉。當你需要執行任務時,他會給你需要幫忙的兩倍。

 “可以從四個角度去確定誰是不論在順境或逆境都能保持穩定的朋友:他告訴你他的秘密、他不會出賣你的秘密、當你有困難時,他不會離棄你、為了你,他會犧牲自己的生命。

可以從四個角度去確定誰是提出忠告的朋友:他防止你做壞事、他叮囑你去做好事、從他的身上,你可以學到以前沒學過的東西、他指示你通去天堂的路。

可以從四個角度去確定誰是有同情心的朋友:他不會向你幸災樂禍、他為你的成功而歡欣、他防止別人誹謗你、他表揚稱讚你的人。

 

年輕的管家,雅利安子弟是怎樣看守那六個方位呢 2.?這些應該看作六個方位:雙親作東方、老師作為南方、妻兒作為西方、朋友和伙伴作為北方、僱員作為天底、士和婆羅門作為天頂。

子女應該用五種方法奉侍雙親作為東方(對自己說):他們曾經養育我、現在我會供養他們,他們應該執行的職責、我會代他們執行,我會維繫家族的嫡系和傳統,(當他們過世後)我會以他們的名義捐獻(作宗教禮儀)。

雙親既由子女奉侍作為東方,雙親應該用五種方法表達他們的慈愛:防止他們做壞事;指導他們向善;給他們專業訓練;為他們安排適合的配偶;而且在適當的時候,把家產傳襲給他們。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護東方,使它變得安全和穩固。

 

學生應該用五種方法尊敬老師作為南方:(從座位)起立(並致敬禮)、服侍、認真學習、照顧起居、恭敬地接受教誨。

老師既由學生尊敬作為南方,老師應該用五種方法表達他們的慈愛:好好地訓練他;使他好好地掌握學到的東西;教他透徹地認識每個學科;給他介紹朋友和伙伴;處處給他提供保障。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護南方,使它變得安全和穩固。

 

丈夫應該用五種方法照顧妻子作為西方,尊敬她、禮待她、忠於她、給她權力、送她首飾。

妻子既由丈夫照顧作為西方,妻子應該用五種方法表達她的親愛:好好地實踐責任;善待僕從;忠貞;小心管理他的收入;技巧和勤奮地處理交易。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護西方,使它變得安全和隱固。

 

在家人應該用五種方法照顧朋友和伙伴作為北方:慷慨、有禮、善心、公平(對待他們一如自己)、守信。

朋友和伙伴既由在家人照顧作為北方,朋友和伙伴應該用五種方法表達他們的敬愛:有需要時保護他;他當他不能照顧自己的財物時,為他照顧財物;當他有危難時,給他庇護;當他有麻煩時,不會捨棄他;尊敬他的親人。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護北方,使它變得安全和穩固。

 

僱主應該用五種方法照顧僱員作為天底:因應他們的能力安排工作、給他們供應食物和薪水、當他們病了,給他們照料、與他們分享特別的奇珍、經常給他們假期和禮物。

僱員既由僱主這樣照顧作為天底,僱員應該用五種方法表達他們的敬愛:比他更早起床;比他更遲上床;接受所有供給他的東西;為他說好話;給他一個好名譽。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護天底,使它變得安全和穩固。

 

一個普通人應該用五種方法供養隱士和婆羅門作為天頂:溫柔的動作、溫柔的說話、溫和的想法、為他們看守家門,因為他們的家是大開中門的、供應他們一切所需。

士和婆羅門既由普通人這樣照顧作為天頂,士和婆羅門應該用五種方法表達他們的敬愛:保障他們免受邪惡威脅;勸勉他們做好事;為愛護,所以關懷他們;教導他們未懂的事情;改善他們已懂的事情,向他們顯露到天國的路。

就這樣這位雅利安子弟已好好地保護天頂,使它變得安全和穩固。

 

當世尊說法完畢,年青的管家施嘉那立即對世尊說:“真好,先生,真好!這番說法就像扶正倒下了的東西、顯現遮蔽了的東西、指引迷了途的人、帶盞燈到黑暗的地方,好使有視力的人能夠看見。就這樣,聖者用各種方法說明佛法。我要歸依到聖者、佛法、信徒團體那裡去。請聖者接納我作為在家信徒,就像一個人自此受到庇護直至軀體能夠延續。”

長部  31.

 

 

1.       膜拜外方世界的各個方位以祈求住在那裡的神靈保護他們,這是很古老的吠陀(Vedic)習俗。佛陀不贊同這習俗,更譴責它是迷信、古老。佛陀為不同的對象把它賦與新的闡釋。就像(布的寓言)裡,向一位婆羅門講解內心洗淨,而不是 在聖河洗澡

2.  佛陀向施嘉那解釋六個方位是什麼,如何按照雅利安貴族的規律,禮拜 它們。其實應該做自己的職責,而不是依照古老的婆羅門習俗去做崇拜儀式。如果那 六個方位這樣 保護,它們已經變得安全和穩固,再不會有什麼危害。婆羅門教徒膜拜外方世界的各個方位;因為常有危害來自住在那裡的神靈,所以教徒祈求避免它們。