THE FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

The Presence of Mindfulness

Satipatthana-sutta

Abridged

Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once living among the Kurus, at Kammassadamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus and spoke as follows :

            ‘This is the only way, Bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the Four Foundations ( four forms of Presence ) of Mindfulness. What are the four ?

‘Here a bhikkhu, ardent, clearly comprehending things and mindful, lives observing (the activities of) the body, having overcome covetousness and repugnance towards the world (of body); observing feelings, having overcome covetousness and repugnance towards the world (of feelings)observing (the activities of) the mind, having overcome covetousness and repugnance towards the world (of mind) ;observing mental objects, having overcome covetousness and repugnance towards the world (of mental objects).’

[ I. BODY ]

‘And how does a bhikkhu live observing ( the activities of ) the body ?

[1. Breathing]

‘Here Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree or to some empty place, sits down, with his legs crossed, keeps his body straight and his mindfulness alert.

‘Ever mindful he breathes in, and ever mindful he breathes out. Breathing in a long breath, he knows “I am breathing in a long breath”; breathing out a long breath, he knows “I am breathing out a long breath”; breathing in a short breath, he knows “I am breathing in a short breath”; breathing out a short breath, he knows “I am breathing out a short breath”.

‘ “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in”; thus he trains himself. “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out”: thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breath in”: thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out”: thus he trains himself

‘Thus he lives observing ( the activities of ) the body internally, orexternally, orboth internally and externally. He lives also observing origination-factors in the body, or dissolution-factors in the body, or origination-and-dissolution factors in the body. Or his mindfulness is established to the extent necessary just for knowledge and awareness that the body exists and he lives unattached, and clings to naught in the world. In this way Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing (the activities of) the body.

[2. Postures of the body]

  ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows when he is going, “I am going”. He knows when he is standing, “I am standing”. He knows when he is sitting, “He knows when he is lying down, “I am lying down”. Or he knows just how his body is disposed.

  ‘Thus he lives observing (the activities of) the body internally, or externally

[3. Full Attention]

  ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu applies full attention either in going forward or back; in looking straight on or looking away; in bending or in stretching; in wearing robes or carrying the bowl; in eating, drinking, chewing or savouring; in attending to the calls of nature; in walking, in standing, in sitting; in falling asleep, in waking; in speaking or in keeping silence. In all these he applies full attention.

  ‘Thus he lives observing (the activities of ) the body.

[4. Repulsiveness of the body]

   ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the sole up, and from the top of the hair down,  thinking thus: “There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach, fasces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid, urine”.

  ‘Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision-bag full of various kinds of grain such as hill paddy, paddy, green grain cow-peas, sesame and husked rice, and a man with sound eyes, having opened that bag, were to reflect thus: This is hill paddy, this is paddy, this is green grain, this is cow-pea, this is sesame, this is husked rice, just so, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the sole up, and from the top of the hair down, thinking thus: There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teethsynovial fluid, urine.

  ‘Thus he lives observing the body

[5. Material Elements]

  ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very body, as it is, and it is constituted, by way of the material elements: “There are in this body the element of earth, the element of water, the element of fire, the element of wind”.

  ‘Just as if, bhikkhus, a clever cow-butcher or his apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions, would be sitting at the junction of four high roads; in the same way, a bhikkhu reflects on this very body, as it is, and it is constituted, by way of the material elements: “There are in this body the elements of earth, water, fire and wind”.

  ‘Thus he lives observing the body

[6. Nine Cemetery Objects]

1‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body dead one, two or three days, swollen, blue and festering, thrown on to the cemetery, so he applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, my own body, too, is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it”.

  ‘Thus he lives observing the body

2‘And further, bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery, being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals or by different kinds of worms, so he applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, my own body, too, is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it”.

  ‘Thus he lives observing the body

3‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood attached to it, held together by the tendons

4‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to a skeleton, blood-be-smeared and without flesh, held together by the tendons

5‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together by the tendons

6‘And further, bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to disconnected boned, scattered in all directions—here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull

7‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to bleached bones of conch-like colour

8‘And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikku sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to bones, more than a year old, lying in a heap

9’And further, Bhikkhus, just as a bhikkhu sees a body thrown on to the cemetery reduced to boned rotten and become dustso he applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, my own body, too, is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it”.

  ‘Thus he lives observing the body

[ II. FEELINGS ]

‘And how Bhikkhus, does a bhikku live observing feelings? ‘Here, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu when experiencing a pleasant feeling knows: “I experience a pleasant feeling”; when experiencing a painful feeling, he knows: “I experience a painful feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling, he knows: “I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling”. When experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he knows: “I experience a pleasant worldly feeling”; when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows: “I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling”; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he knows: “I experience a painful worldly feeling”; when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling, he knows: “I experience a painful spiritual feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, he knows: “I experience a neither-pleasant- nor-painful worldly feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling, he knows: “I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling”.

            ‘He lives in this way observing feelings internally,or externally, orinternally and externally. He lives observing origination-factors in feelings, or dissolution-factors in feelings, or origination-and-dissolution factors in feelings. Or his mindful-ness is established to the extent necessary just for knowledge and awareness that feeling exists, and he lives unattached, and clings to naught in the world. In this way, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing feelings.’

[ III. MIND ]

‘And how, Bhikkhus, does a bhikku live observing mind? ‘Here Bhikkhus, a bhikku knows the mind with lust, as being with lust; the mind without lust, as being without lust; the mind with hate, as being with hate; the mind without hate, as being without hate; the mind with ignorance, as being with ignorance; the mind without ignorance, as being without ignorance; the shrunken state of mind as the shrunken state; the distracted state of mind as the distracted state; the developed state of mind as the developed state; the undeveloped state of mind as undeveloped state; the state of mind with some other mental state superior to it, as being the state with something mentally superior to it; the state of mind with no other mental state superior to it, as being the state with nothing mentally superior to it; the concentrated state of mind as the concentrated state; the unconcentrated state of mind as the unconcentrated state; the liberated state of mind as the liberated state; and the unliberated state of mind as the unliberated state.

            ‘He lives in this way observing the mind internally, or externally, or internally and externally.

            He lives observing origination-factors in mind or dissolution-factors in mind or origination-and-dissolution-factors in mind. Or his mindfulness is established to the extent necessary just for knowledge and awareness that mind exists, and he lives unattached, and clings to naught in the world. Thus, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing mind.’

[ IV.     MENTAL OBJECTS ]

  ‘And how, Bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live observing mental objects ?

[Five Hindrances]

            ‘Here, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing the Five Hindrances as mental objects.

            ‘How, Bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live observing the Five Hindrances as mental objects ?

1’Here, Bhikkhus, when sense-desire is present, a bhikkhu knows: “Sense-desire is in me”, or when sense-desire is not present, he knows: “There is no sense-desire in me”. He knows how the non-arisen sense-desire; he knows how the arisen sense-desire disappears; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense-desire comes to be.

2’When anger is present, he knows: “Anger is in me”

3’When torpor and languor are present, he knows: “Torpor and languor are in me”

4’When restlessness and worry are present, he knows: “Restlessness and worry are in me”

5’When doubt is present, he knows: “Doubt is in me”, or when doubt is not present, he knows, “There is no doubt in me”. He knows how the non-arisen doubt arises; he knows how the arisen doubt disappears; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.

            ‘In this way he lives observing mental objects internally, or externally, or internally and externally. He lives observing origination-factors in mental objects, or dissolution-factors in mental objects, or origination-and dissolution-factors in mental objects. Or his mindfulness is established to the extent necessary just for knowledge and awareness that mental objects exist, and he lives unattached and clings to naught in the world. In this way, Bhikkhus, a bhikku lives observing the five hindrances as mental objects.

[Five Aggregates]

            ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikku lives observing the five aggregates of clinging as mental objects.

            ‘How, Bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live observing (contemplating) the five aggregates of clinging as mental objects?

            ‘Here, Bhikkhus, a bhikku thinks: Thus is material form; it arises in this way; and it disappears in this way. Thus is feeling; it arises in this way; and it disappears in this way. Thus is perception; it arises in this way; and it disappears in this way. Thus are mental formations; they arise in this way; and they disappear in this way. Thus is consciousness; it arises in this way; and it disappears in this way.

            “Thus he lives contemplating mental objects internally, etc.

In this way, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the five aggregates of clinging as mental objects.

[Six Sense-Bases]

            ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikku lives contemplating the six internal and the six external sense-bases as mental objects.

          ‘How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating the six internal and the six external sense-bases as mental objects?

            ‘Here, Bhikkhus a bhikkhu knows the eye and visual forms, and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the eye and forms); he knows how the non-arisen fetter arises; he knows how the arisen fetter disappears; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

            ‘He knows the ear and soundsthe nose and smellsthe tongue and flavoursthe body and tangible objectsthe mind and mental objects, and the fetter that arises dependent on both; he knows how the non-arisen fetter arises; he knows how the arisen fetter disappears; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

            ‘In this way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental objects internally, etc.In this way, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the six internal and the six external sense-bases as mental objects.

[Seven Factors of Enlightenment]

            ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing the Seven Factors of Enlightenment as mental objects.

            ‘How Bhikkhus does a bhikkhu live observing the Seven Factors of Enlightenment as mental objects?

1’Here Bhikkhus, when the Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness is present, the bhikkhu knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness is in me”; or when the Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness is not in me”; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness arises; and how perfection in development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of Mindfulness comes to be.

2’When the Enlightenment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects is present, the bhikkhu knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects is in me”; when the Enlightenment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects is not in me”; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects arises and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightinment-factor of the Investigation of mental objects comes to be.

3When the Enlightenment-factor of Energy is present, he knows: “The Enlightenment-    

 

factor of Energy is in me”; when the Enlightenment-factor of Energy is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Energy is not in me “; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Energy arises, and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of Energy comes to be.

4’When the Enlightenment-factor of Joy is present, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Joy is in me”; when the Enlightenment-factor of Joy is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Joy is not in me”; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Joy arises and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of Joy comes to be.

5’When the Enlightenment-factor of Relaxation (of body and mind) is present, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Relaxation is in me”; when the Enlightenment-

factor of Relaxation is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Relaxation is not in me” ; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Relaxation arises, and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of the Relaxation comes to be.

6’When the Enlightenment-factor of Concentration is present, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Concentration is in me”; when the Enlightenment-factor of Concentration is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Concentration is not in me”; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Concentration arises, and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of Concentration comes to be.

7’When the Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity is present, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity is in me”; when the Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity is absent, he knows: “The Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity is not in me”; and he knows how the non-arisen Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity arises, and how perfection in the development of the arisen Enlightenment-factor of Equanimity comes to be.

            ‘Thus he lives observing mental objects internally, etc.

Thus, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives observing the Seven Factors of Enlightenment as mental objects.

[Four Noble Truths]

            ‘And further, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the Four Noble Truths as mental objects.

            ‘How bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating the Four Noble Truths as mental objects ?

            ‘Here, Bhikkkhus, a bhikkhu knows, “This is Dukkha (suffering)”, according to reality; he knows, “This is the Origin of Dukkha”, according to reality; he knows, “This is the Cessation of Dukkha”, according to reality; he knows, “This is the Path leading to the Cessation of Dukkha”, according to reality.

            ‘Thus he lives contemplating mental objects internally, etc.

In this way, Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the Four Noble Truths as mental objects.

            ‘Bhikkhus, whosoever practices these four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven years, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: Highest Knowledge (Arahant-ship), here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of Non-returning.

            ‘Bhikkhus, let alone seven years. Should any person practice these four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for six years for five years four years three years two years one year, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: Highest Knowledge, here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of Non-returning.

‘Bhikkhus, let alone a year. Should any person practice these four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven months for six months five months four months three months two months a monthhalf a month, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: Highest Knowledge, here and now, or if some remander of clinging is yet present, the state of Non-returning.

            ‘Bhikkhus, let alone half a month. Should any person practice these four Foundations of Mindfulness, in this manner, for a weeks, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: Highest Knowledge, here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of Non-returning.

            ‘Because of this was it said: “This is the only way, Bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the four foundations of Mindfulness”.’

            This the Blessed One said. Satisfied, the Bhikkhus rejoiced at his words.

Majjhima Nikaya, Sutta No. 10

 

 念處經

專注的存在

摘要

 

如是我聞:當時,世尊正住在伽瑪沙擔瑪,這個地方是古魯人的墟市。在那裡,世尊向各位比丘說法:

比丘,這是唯一的方法去清淨眾生、克服傷痛、消除苦惱、到達正途、成就涅槃,它就是專注的四種念處。那四種念處呢?

有一位比丘,熱心、明白而專注事理、留意身體(的行動)、捨棄(身體的)貪婪和厭惡;留意感受、捨棄(感受的)貪婪和厭惡……留意思想(的行動)、捨棄(思想的)貪婪和厭惡;留意心靈的事物、捨棄(心靈事物的)貪婪和厭惡。

 

(一)身體

一位比丘怎樣在生活中留意身體(的行動)呢?

(一)呼吸

他走進了森林,來到樹下的空地。他坐下來、把腿盤起、挺直身軀、而且保持念處的警覺。

他時常留意吸氣又留意呼氣。當他吸入一大口氣時,他知道:我正吸入一大口氣。當他呼出一大口氣時,他知道:我正呼出一大口氣。當他吸入一小口氣時,他知道:我正吸入一小口氣。當他呼出一小口氣時,他知道:我正呼出一小口氣。

他知道我一邊體驗身體在呼吸時的狀況,一邊吸入空氣;於是他就這樣鍛鍊自己。 我一邊體驗身體在呼吸時的狀況,一邊呼出空氣;於是他就這樣鍛鍊自己。 我一邊安靜身體在呼吸時的狀況,一邊吸入空氣;於是他就這樣鍛鍊自己。 我一邊安靜身體在呼吸時的狀況,一邊呼出空氣;於是他就這樣鍛鍊自己……。

於是他在生活中留意身體呼吸行動的內在情況、或者……外在情況、或者……內在和外在情況。他在生活中也留意身體中源起的因素、或者身體中腐壞的因素、或者身體中源起和腐壞的因素。又或者他的專注使他知道甚至警覺自己的存在、而且是不依附任何事物地生活。於是他就這樣留意身體的活動。

(二)身體的姿態

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘知道什麼時候他正在走路,我正在走路。他知道什麼時候他正站著, 我正站著。他知道什麼時候他正坐著 我正坐著。他知道什麼時候他正躺著, 我正躺著。即是說他肯定知道他身體姿態是怎樣的。

  “於是他在生活中留意身體行動的內在或者外在的情況……。

(三)全神貫注

比丘,跟著,這位比丘全神貫注他正在向前走或者向後走;正盯著或者移開視線;正在彎腰或者伸腰;正在穿衣或者托缽;正在食、飲、咀嚼、品嚐;又或者正在如厠、走路、站立、坐著;睡眠、睡醒;說話、沈默。總之,做這些事情時他都全神貫注。

於是他在生活中留意身體的行動。

(四)身體的排斥

比丘,跟著,這位比丘考慮到:其實,他這個身軀只是從頭髮至腳踝、由皮膚包裹各式各樣的不潔。於是,他想到: 在這個身軀裡,有頭的毛髮、身體的毛髮、指甲、牙齒、皮膚、肌肉、肌腱、骨頭、骨髄、腎臟、心臟、肝臟、橫隔膜、脾臟、肺部、小腸、腸膜、胃臟、筋膜、膽液、淋巴液、膿水、血液、汗液、脂肪、淚液、油脂、唾液、鼻涕、滑液、尿液。

  “就好像有兩個口的袋。這個袋裡面有各式各樣的穀物,例如:山稻、水稻、綠豆、豌豆、芝麻、糙米。有良好眼力的人打開這個袋時,就知道這是山稻、這是水稻、這是綠豆、這是豌豆、這是芝麻、這是糙米。比丘,同樣地,這位比丘考慮到:其實,他這個身軀只是從頭髮至腳踝、由皮膚包裹各式各樣的不潔。於是,他想到: 在這個身軀裡,有頭的毛髮、身體的毛髮、指甲、牙齒、……滑液、尿液。

  “於是他在生活中留意身體……。

(五)物質成份

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘考慮到這個身軀,這個身軀的本身,它的物質構造成份: 這個身軀有地的成份、水的成份、火的成份、風的成份。

  “比丘,就好像一位聰明的屠牛夫或者他的徒弟,殺了一頭牛和把它分割後,坐在四條大路的交叉口一樣、這位比丘考慮到這個身軀,這個身軀的本身,它的物質構造成份: 這個身軀有地、水、火、風的成份。

  “於是他在生活中留意身體……。

 

(六)九種屍體的變化        [Narada 1]

(1)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見死了一天、兩天或三天的屍體腫脹起來、

變藍、潰爛、被扔下墳穴,於是他把這種感覺印證在自己的軀體上: 其實,我自己的軀體也和那個一樣;同樣地會變成和不能逃避那個情況。

  “於是他在生活中留意身體……。

(2)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,給烏鴉、麻鷹、兀鷲、

狗隻、豺狼、或者各類昆蟲所啄食,於是他把這種感覺印證在自己的軀體上: 其實,我自己的軀體也和那個一樣;同樣地會變成和不能逃避那個情況。

於是他在生活中留意身體……。

(3)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一副骨骼,帶著

一些肉和血,由筋腱連在一起……。

(4)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一副骨骼,留下

血污卻沒了肌肉,由筋腱連在一起……。

(5)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一副骨骼,沒了

肌肉和血液,由筋腱連在一起……。

(6)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一堆亂骨,四散

穴內:這裡是一塊手骨、那裡是一塊腳骨、脛骨、腿骨、盆骨、脊骨、頭骨……。

(7)       比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一堆貝殼色的白

骨……。

(8)        “比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,一年後,潰爛成一堆白骨……。

(9)        “比丘,跟著,就像這位比丘看見屍體被扔下墳穴,潰爛成一堆腐骨、然後變成坭塵……於是他把這種感覺印證在自己的軀體上: 其實,我自己的軀體也和那個一樣;同樣地會變成和不能逃避那個情況。

於是他在生活中留意身體

譯註:

1.      九種屍體的變化,在Rahula是九件墳地事物,但此段文字似乎描述九種屍體的變化,所以譯者選Narada

Narada1988 The Bddha and his teachings. Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society.

(二)感受

  “一位比丘怎樣在生活中留意感受呢

  “比丘,當他經歷快樂的感受時,他知道: 我正經歷快樂的感受;當他經歷痛苦的感受時,他知道:我正經歷痛苦的感受:當他經歷既非快樂亦不痛苦的感受時,他知道: 我正經歷既非快樂亦不痛苦的感受。當他經歷俗世認為快樂的感受時,他知道: 我正經歷俗世認為快樂的感受;當他經歷快樂的精神感受時,他知道: 我正經歷快樂的精神感受;當他經歷俗世認為痛苦的感受時,他知道: 我正經歷俗世認為痛苦的感受;當他經歷痛苦的精神感受時,他知道: 我正經歷痛苦的精神感受;當他經歷俗世認為既非快樂亦不痛苦的感受時,他知道: 我正經歷俗世認為既非快樂亦不痛苦的感受:當他經歷既非快樂亦不痛苦的精神感受時,他知道: 我正經歷既非快樂亦不痛苦的精神感受

  “就這樣他在生活中留意感受的內在情況、或者……外在情況、或者……內在和外在情況。他在生活中也留意感受中源起的因素、或者感受中腐壞的因素、或者感受中源起和腐壞的因素。又或者他的專注可使他知道甚至警覺感受的存在、而且是不依附任何事物地生活。於是他就這樣在生活中留意感受。

 

(三)思想

  “一位比丘怎樣在生活中觀察心念呢?

  “比丘,當他的心念是有關欲望的,他即知道自己的心念是有關欲望的;當他的心念是無關欲望的,他即知道自己的心念是無關欲望的;是有關憎恨的,即知道它是有關憎恨的;自己的心念是無關憎恨的,即知道它是無關憎恨的;自己的心念是有關無知的,即知它是有關無知的;自己的心念是無關無知的,即知它是無關無知的;自己的心念是萎縮了,即知它是萎縮了;自己的心念是困惑了,即知它是困惑了;自己的思想己發展到高境界了,即知他自己的思想發展到高境界了;自己的思想未能發展到高境界,即知它未能發展到高境界;自己的思想仍要發展到更高境界,即知它仍要發展到更高境界了;自己的思想己發展到最高境界、再無更高的了;即知它已發展到最高境界、再無更高的了;自己的思想是全神貫注的,即知它是全神貫注的;自己的思想是未能全神貫注的,即知它是未能全神貫注的;自己的思想已達到超脫境界了,即知它已達到超脫的境界了;自己的思想仍未達到超脫的境界,即知它仍未達到超脫的境界。

就這樣他在生活中留意自己的思想的內在情況、或者……外在情況、或者……內在和外在情況。

他在生活中觀意自己的心念中源起的因素、或者自己的心念中腐壞的因素、或者自己的心念中源起和腐壞的因素。又或者他的專注可使他知道甚至警覺自己心念的存在、而且是不依附任何事物地生活。於是他就這樣在生活中觀察自己的心念。

 

(四)意識

比丘,一位比丘會否在生活中觀察意識呢?

[五種障礙]

  “比丘,他如何在生活中觀察五種障礙的意識呢?

{1}      “比丘,當他發現感官欲望,他知道:感官欲望在自己心中,或者沒有發現感官欲望,他知道:感官欲望沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生的感官欲望會怎樣產生,他知道已產生的感官欲望會怎樣消逝:而且他知道捨棄了感官欲望後,這樣永不產生的感覺會怎樣到來。

(2)        “當他發現憤怒,他知道: 憤怒在自己心中……。

(3)        “當他發現呆滯,他知道: 呆滯在自己心中……。

(4)        “當他發現不安,他知道: 不安在自己心中……。

(5)        “當他發現擔憂,他知道: 擔憂在自己心中,或者沒有發現擔憂,他知道: 擔憂沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生的擔憂會怎樣產生,他知道已產生的擔憂會怎樣消浙;而且他知道捨棄了擔憂後,這樣永不產生的感覺會怎樣到來。

  “就這樣他在生活中觀察自己的意識的內在情況、或者……外在情況、或者……內在和外在情況。他在生活中也留意自己的意識中源起的因素、或者自己的意識中腐壞的因素、或者自己意識中源起和腐壞的因素。又或者他的專注可使他知道甚至警覺自己的意識的存在、而且是不依附任何事物地生活。於是他就這樣在生活中觀察自己的意識。

[五種聚合](五種聚合即五蘊)

比丘,跟著,這位比丘在生活中留心意識中五種聚合。

比丘,他如何在生活中觀察(沉思)意識中五種聚合呢?

比丘,他想:這就是物質的形狀(色蘊),它是這樣產生的;而它是這樣消失的。這就是感覺(受蘊),它是這樣產生的;而它是這樣消失的。這就是認識(想蘊),它是這樣產生的;而它是這樣消失的。這就是思潮(行蘊),它是這樣產生的;而它是這樣消失的。這就是知覺(識蘊),它是這樣產生的;而它是這樣消失的。

就這樣他在生活中觀察自己的意識的內在情況……於是他就這樣在生活中觀察自己的意識。

[六種感官之起始](六種感官即六入處)

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘在生活中觀察意識中六種感官之起始。

  “比丘,他如何在生活中觀察意識中六種內在和六種外在感官之起始呢?

  “比丘,他認識眼睛和視覺形狀,以及由眼睛和視覺形狀產生的束縳。他知道未曾產生的束縳會怎樣產生,他知道已產生的束縳會怎樣消逝;而且他知道捨棄了束縳後,這樣永不產生的感覺會怎樣到來。

  “他認識耳朵和聲音……鼻子和氣味……舌頭和味道……身體和觸感……思想和意識,以及由思想和意識產生的束縳。他知道未曾產生的束縳會怎樣產生,他知道已產生的束縳會怎樣消逝;而且他知道捨棄了束縳後,這樣永不產生的感覺會怎樣到來。

  “比丘,就這樣他在生活中觀察自己的意識的內在情況……於是他就這樣在生活中觀察意識中六種內在和六種外在感官之起始。

 

[七種覺悟之因素](即七覺支)

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘在生活中觀察意識中七種覺悟之因素。

  “比丘,他如何在生活中觀察意識中七種覺悟因素呢?

(1)       比丘,當他發現念覺支,他知道: 念覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現念覺支,他知道: 念覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生念覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展念覺支。

(2)       比丘,當他發現擇法覺支,他知道: 擇法覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現擇法覺支,他知道: 擇法覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生擇法覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展擇法覺支。

(3)       比丘,當他發現精進覺支,他知道: 精進覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現精進覺支,他知道:精進覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生精進覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展精進覺支。

(4)       比丘,當他發現喜覺支,他知道:喜覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現喜覺支,他知道: 喜覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生喜覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展喜覺支。

(5)       比丘,當他發現輕安覺支,他知道:輕安覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現輕安覺支,他知道:輕安覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生輕安覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展輕安覺支。

(6)       比丘,當他發現定覺支,他知道:定覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現定覺支,他知道:定覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生定覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展定覺支。

(7)       比丘,當他發現捨覺支,他知道:捨覺支在自己心中,或者沒有發現捨覺支,他知道:捨覺支沒有在自己心中。他知道未曾產生捨覺支會怎樣產生;而且他知道怎樣完滿地發展捨覺支。

  “就這樣他在生活中觀察自己的意識的內在情況……於是他就這樣在生活中觀察意識中七種覺悟之因素。

 

[四種真理](即四聖諦)

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘在生活中沉思意識中四種真理。

  “比丘,他如何在生活中沉思意識中四種真理呢?

  “比丘,跟著,這位比丘跟據事實,他知道:這是苦聖諦。跟據事實,他知道:這是苦集聖諦。跟據事實,他知道:這是苦滅聖諦。跟據事實,他知道:這是苦滅道跡聖諦。

  “比丘,就這樣他在生活中沉思自己的意識的內在情況……於是他就這樣在生活中沉思意識中四種真理。

比丘,任何人以這樣的方法修習四念處七年,預期他會得到兩種果位的其中之一:現生得到最高的智慧(阿羅漢)果位;或如果還有剩餘的執著的話,得到不還果位。

  “比丘,莫說七年,任何人以這樣的方法修習六年……五年……四年……三年……兩年……一年,預期他會得到兩種果位的其中之一:現生得到最高的智慧;或如果還有剩餘的執著的話,得到不還果位。

比丘,莫說一年,任何人以這樣的方法修習四念處七個月……六個月……五個月……四個月……三個月……兩個月……一個月……半個月,預期他會得到兩種果位的其中之一:現生得到最高的智慧;或如果還有剩餘的執著的話,得到不還果位。

比丘,莫說半個月,任何人以這樣的方法修習四念處七天,預期他會得到兩種果位的其中之一:現生得到最高的智慧,或如果還有剩餘的執著的話,得到不還果位。

因此,以上所說的,就是‘比丘,這是唯一的方法去清淨眾生、克服傷痛、消除苦惱、到達正途、成就涅槃、它就是四念處。

世尊說法後,比丘得到滿足,感到歡喜。

    (中部  10.