SETTING IN MOTION THE WHEEL OF TRUTH

Dhammacakkappavattana-sutta

The First Sermon of the Buddha         

 

Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once living in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Resort of Seersnear Baranasi Benares.There he addressed the group of five

 bhikkhus:

        ‘Bhikkhus, these two extremes ought not be practiced by one who has gone forth from the household life. What are the two? There is devotion to the indulgence of sense-pleasures, which is low, common, the way of ordinary people, unworthy and unprofitable; and there is devotion to self-mortification, which is painful, unworthy and unprofitable.

        ‘Avoiding both these extremes, the Tathagata has realized the Middle Path: it gives vision, it gives knowledge, and it leads to calm, to insight, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Path? It is simply the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the Middle Path realized by the Tathagata, which gives vision, which gives knowledge, and which leads to calm, to insight, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.

        ‘The Noble Truth of suffering Dukkbais this: Birth is suffering; aging is suffering; sickness is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; association with the unpleasant is suffering; dissociation from the pleasant is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering—in brief, the five aggregates of attachment are suffering.

‘The Noble Truth of the origin of suffering is this: It is this thirstcravingwhich produces re-existence and re-becoming, bound up with passionate greed. It finds fresh delight now here and now there, namely, thirst for sense-pleasures; thirst for existence and becoming; and thirst for non-existence {selfannihilation}.

        ‘The Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering is this: It is the complete cessation of that very thirst, giving it up, renouncing it, emancipating oneself from it, detaching oneself from it.

        ‘The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of suffering is this: It is simply the Noble Eightfold Path, namely right view; right thought; right speech, right action; right livelihood; right effort; right mindfulness; right concentration.

        ‘ ”This is the Noble Truth of Suffering {Dukkha}”: such was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the science, the light, that arose in me with regard to things not heard before. “This suffering, as a noble truth, should be fully understood”: such was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the science, the light, that arose in me with regard to things not heard before. “This suffering, as a noble truth, has been fully understood”: such was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the science, the light, that arose in me with regard to things not heard before.

        ‘ “This is the Noble Truth of the Origin of suffering”: such was the vision “This Origin of suffering, as a noble truth, should be abandoned”: such was the vision

,” This Origin of suffering, as a noble truth has been abandoned”: such was the vis-

ion,with regard to things not heard before.

        “This is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering”: such was the vision“This Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, should be realized”: such was the vision, “This Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, has been realized”: such was the vision,

with regard to things not heard before.

        ‘ “This is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of suffering”: such was the vision,”This Path leading to the Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, should be followed {cultivated}”: such was the vision,”This Path leading to the Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, has been followed {cultivated}”: such was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the science, the light, that arose in me with regard to things not heard before.

‘As long as my vision of true knowledge was not fully clear in these three aspects, in these twelve ways, regarding the Four Noble Truths,1 I did not claim to have realized the perfect Enlightenment that is supreme in the world with its gods, with its Maras and Brahmas, in this world with its recluses and brahmanas, with its princes and men. But when my vision of true knowledge was fully clear in these three aspects, in these twelve ways, regarding the Four Noble Truths, then I claimed to have realized the perfect Enlightenment that is supreme in the world with its gods, its Maras and Brahmas in this world with its recluses and brahmanas, with its princes and men. And a vision of true knowledge arose in me thus: My heart`s deliverance is unassailable.   This is the last birth. Now there is no more re-becoming {rebirth}.

This the Blessed One said. The group of five bhikkhus was glad, and they rejoiced at his words.

 

( Samyutta-nikaya, LVI, 11 )

 

 

        1. As may be seen from the four preceding paragraphs, with regard to each of the Four Noble Truths there are three aspects of knowledge :1.The knowledge that it is the Truth {sacca-nana} 2. The knowledge that a certain function or action with regard to this Truth should be performed {kicca-nana}, and 3. The knowledge that function or action with regard to this Truth has been performed {kata-nana}. When these three aspects to each of the Four Noble Truths, twelve ways are obtained.

 

轉法輪經

{佛陀的第一篇說法}      

林兆 中譯

 

如是我聞:當時,世尊住在婆羅那斯城附近依斯巴丹拿的鹿野苑(依斯巴丹拿是預言家的聚集地)。他向五位比丘說法:比丘啊,捨棄了家居生活的人就不應沈溺於兩種極端行徑。哪兩種行徑呢?其一是耽淫於感官的逸樂;這些逸樂是低下、庸碌、世俗、不值、無益的。其二是極度的自我克制;這樣克制是痛苦、不值、無益的。

我避免了這兩種極端的行徑,因而得證『中道』、也帶來洞察力,知識更帶引我到寧靜、省悟、迪以至涅槃。什麼是『中道』?簡單地說就是八正道:正見、正思維、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定。這就是我證悟到的中道。他帶來觀察、也帶來知識、更帶引到寧靜、省悟、迪以至涅槃。

『苦聖諦』1.是這樣的:生是苦、老是苦、病是苦、死是苦,愛別離〈悲傷、痛楚、憂鬱、失望〉是苦;怨憎會是苦、求不得是苦,歸納來說,執取五蘊全都是苦。

『苦集聖諦』是這樣的:因為熱烈的貪婪,弄至渴求一次又一次不時四處出現、帶來新鮮的喜悅,譬如渴求感官的享受,渴求生存和再生、甚至渴求自我毀滅。

『苦滅聖諦』是這樣的:完全捨棄渴求,把它放棄、與它決絕,從它的束縛中解脫出來並脫離它。

『苦滅道跡聖諦』是這樣的:簡單地說就是八正道:正見、正思維、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定。

這就是苦聖諦:理解了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、 [Narada2]、光明。所以需要徹底理解苦聖諦;理解了,即使對從沒來見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。」

這是苦集聖諦:理解了,即便對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明;這就是苦集聖諦,應捨棄苦集。捨棄了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。

這是苦滅聖諦,理解了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識,智慧,科學、光明。苦滅聖諦必須實現。實現了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。苦滅聖諦已經實現了。實現了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。

這就是苦滅道跡聖諦,理解了,即對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。苦滅道跡聖諦必須修習,修習了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識、智慧、科學、光明。苦滅道跡聖諦已經修習,修習了,即使對從來沒見過的事物,心中也生出洞察力,知識,智慧、科學、光明。

如果我對這四聖諦的三個層面、十二個方式未能徹底洞悉,我就不認為已達致完滿的覺悟(註1)。儘管這個世上存在神祗、梵沙門(Maras)、婆羅門(Brahmins),也存在隱士、沙門以及王子和人類;我這個覺悟是最高無尚的。但當我對這四聖諦的三個層面、十二個方式徹底洞悉後,我便認為已達致完滿的覺悟。儘管這個世上存在神祗、梵沙門、婆羅門,也存在隱士、沙門以及王子和人類,我這個覺悟是最高無尚的。自此我洞悉了這個真知;我的心解脫是不會被攻破的,這已是最後的誕生,從此沒有再生。

這就是聖者所說的,五位比丘聽後都很高興,為聖者的說法感到欣喜。

 

(相應部,5611經)

註:

(1)    從上面四段可看到:那四聖諦,每種都關於三類認知:了解這樣就是真理的認知、了解應該為這個真理而採取一些行動的認知、了解為這個真理而採取的一些行動已經做了的認知。當這三類認知應用於四種真理,就會有十二個方式。

譯註:

1.              苦,Rahula認為dukkha不是苦,譯者贊成。

2.              領悟,在Rahulascience,但Naradainsight。譯者選Narada

.       Narada1988The Buddha and his teachings. Kuala Lumpur

Buddhist Missionary Society