GETTING RID OF ALL GARES AND TROUBLES

( Sabbasava-sutta )

 

Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once living at the monastery of Anathapindika in Jeta’s grove near Savatthi.

There he addressed the bhikkhus saying: ’Bhikkhus’, and they replied to him: ‘Venerable Sir.’ The Blessed One spoke as follows:

        ‘Bhikkhus, I will expound to you the method of restraining all cares and troubles.1. Listen and reflect well; I shall speak to you’. ‘Yes, Venerable Sir,’they said in response to the Blessed One.

He then spoke as follows:

        ‘Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction ( getting rid ) of cares and troubles is (possible) for one who knows and who sees, not for one who does not know and does not see. What must a person know and see in order that the destruction (getting rid) of cares and troubles should be possible? (There are) wise reflection and unwise reflection. For a person who reflects unwisely there arise cares and troubles which have not yet arisen, and (in addition), those which have already arisen increase. But for him who

reflects wisely, cares and troubles which have not yet arisen do not arise, and (in addition), those already arisen disappear.

        ‘Bhikkhus,1there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by insight; 2there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by restraint; 3there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by use; 4there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by endurance; 5there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by avoidance; 6there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by dispersal; 7there are cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by culture.

        1’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by insight?   

Bhikkhus, the uninstructed ordinary man, who does not see the Noble Ones, who is unversed in the Teachings of the Noble Ones, who is untrained in the Teachings of the Noble Ones, who does not see good men, who is unversed in the teachings of good men, who is untrained in the Teachings of good men, does not understand what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on. Not knowing what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on, he reflects on things that should not be reflected no, and does not reflect on things that should be reflected on.

        ‘Now, Bhikkhus, what are the things that should not be reflected on but on which he reflects? If, in a person, reflecting on certain things, there arises the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen, and (in addition), the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in him increases, the defilement of (the desire for) existence and for becomingthe defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen arises and (in addition), the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in him increases, then these are the things that should not be reflected on, but on which he reflects.

        Bhikkhus, what are the things that should be reflected on, but on which he does not reflect? If, in a person, reflecting on certain things, the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen does not arise, and (in addition), the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in him disappears, the defilement of (the desire for) existence and for becomingthe defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen does not arise,  and (in addition), the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in him disappears, these are the things that should be reflected on, but on which he does not reflect.

        ‘By reflecting on things that should not be reflected on, and by not reflecting on things that should be reflected on, defilements that have not yet arisen arise, and defilements that have already arisen in him increase. Then he reflects unwisely (unnecessarily) in this way:

1.      Did I exist in the past ?

2.      Did I not exist in the past ?

3.      What was I in the past ?

4.      How was I in the past ?

5.      Having been what, did I become what in the past ?

6.      Shall I exist in future ?

7.      Shall I not exist in future ?

8.      What shall I be in future ?

9.      How shall I be in future ?

10.  Having been what, shall I become what in future ?

Or, now at the present time he is doubtful about himself:

11.  Am I ?

12.  Am I not ?

13.  What am I ?

14.  How am I ?

15.  Whence came this person ?

16.  Whither will he go ?

When he reflects unwisely in this way, one of the six false views arises in him :

1.     I have a Self : this view arises in him as true and real . 

       2.     I have no Self : this view arises in him as true and real .

        3.     By Self I perceive Self : this view arises in him as true and real .

        4.     By Self I perceive non-self : this view arises in him as true and real .

        5.     By non-self I perceive Self : this view arises in him as true and real.

        6.     Or a wrong view arises in him as follows: This my self, which speaks and feels, which experiences the fruits of good and bad actions now here and now there, this Self is permanent, stable, everlasting, unchanging, remaining the same for ever and ever.

        ‘This, Bhikkhus, is what is called becoming enmeshed in views; a jungle of views, a wilderness of views; scuffling in views, the agitation (struggle) of views, the fetter of views. Bhikkhus, the uninstructed ordinary man fettered by the fetters of views, does not liberate himself from birth, aging and death, from sorrows, lamentations, pains, griefs, despairs; I say that he does not liberate himself from suffering (dukkba).

        ‘And, Bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple, who sees the Noble Ones, who is versed in the Teachings of the Noble Ones, who is well trained in the Teachings of the Noble Ones, who sees good men, who is versed in the Teachings of the good men, who is well trained in the teachings of the good men, knows what things should be reflected on and what should not be reflected on. Knows what things should be reflected on and what should not be reflected on, he does not reflect on things that should not be reflected on and he reflects on things that should be reflected on.

        Now, Bhikkhus, what are the things that should not be reflected on which he does not reflect ? If, in a person. reflecting on certain things, there arises the defilement of sense-

pleasure which has not yet arisen, and (in addition), the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in him increases, the defilement of (the desire for) existence and for becomingthe defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen arises, and the  defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in him increases, these are the things that should not be reflected on, and on which he does not reflect.

        ‘Bhikkhus what are the things that should be reflected on, and on which he reflects ? If, in a person, reflecting on certain things, the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen does not arise, and (in addition), the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in him disappears, the defilement of (the desire for) existence and for becoming the defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen does not arise, and (in addition), the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in him disappears, these are the things that should be reflected on, and on which he reflects.

        By not reflecting on things that should not be reflected on, and by reflecting on things that should be reflected on, the defilements that have not yet arisen do not arise, and (in addition), the defilements that have already arisen in him disappear. Then he reflects wisely: This is Dakkba (suffering). He reflects wisely: This is arising (cause) of Dukkba. He reflects wisely: This is the Cessation of Dukkba. He reflects wisely: This is the Path leading to the Cessation of Dukkba. When he reflects wisely in this manner, the three Fetters—the false idea of self, sceptical doubt, attachment to observances and rites—fall away from him. Bhikkhus, these are called the troubles (defilements, fetters) that should be got rid of by insight.

        2’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles to be got red of by restraint ?

        ‘Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, lives with his eyes restrained. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for him when he lives without restraining his eyes, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for him when he lives restraining his eyes in this manner.

        ‘Considering wisely, he lives with his ears restrained with his nose restrained with his tongue with his body with his mind restrained. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for him when he lives without restraining his mind, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for him when he lives restraining his mind in this manner. Bhikkhus, these are called the cares and troubles to be got rid of by restraint.

        3’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles to be got rid of by use? Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, makes use of his robes—only to keep off cold, to keep off heat, to keep off gadflies, mosquitoes, winds and the sun, and creeping creatures, and to cover himself decently. Considering wisely, he makes use of food—neither for pleasured nor for excess (intoxication), neither for beauty nor for adornment, but only to support and sustain this body, to keep it from hurt (fatigue) and to foster the holy life, thinking: In this way I put out the feeling (of suffering, hunger) which is already there, and will not produce a new feeling, and my life will be maintained in blamelessness (harmlessness) and convenience. Considering wisely, he makes use of lodging—only to keep off cold, to keep off heat, to keep off gadflies, mosquitoes, winds and the sun, and creeping creatures, to dispel the risks of the seasons and to enjoy seclusion. Considering wisely, he makes use of medicaments and medical requirements—only to get rid of pains and illnesses which he may have and to maintain his health. Bhikkhus, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for him who does not ues any (of these things),  

these troubles, distresses and vexations are not for him when he uses (them) in this manner. Bhkkhus, these are called the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by use.

        4’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles to be got rid of by endurance? Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, puts up with cold and heat, hunger and thirst, with gadflies, mosquitoes, winds, the sun and creeping creatures, abusive and hurtful language, he becomes inured to endurance of bodily feelings which are painful, acute sharp, severe, unpleasant, disagreeable, deadly. Bhikkhus, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person who does not endure any (of these), those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for him who endures them in this manner. Bhikkhus, these are called the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by endurance. 

        5’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles to be got rid of by avoidance? Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, avoids a savage elephant, a savage horse, a savage bull, a savage dog, avoids a snake, the stump (of a tree), a thorny hedge, a pit (hole), a precipice, a refuse-pool or a dirty pool. Considering wisely, he also avoids sitting in such unseemly places, and frequenting such unseemly resorts, and cultivating such bad friends as would lead the discreet among his fellows in the holy life to conclude that he has gone astray. Bhikkus, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for him when he does not avoid any things (such as these), those troubles, distresses and vexations would not be for him when he avoids them in this manner. These are called the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by avoidance.

        6’What are the cares and troubles to be got rid of by dispersal? Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, does not tolerate, rejects, discards, destroys, extinguishes thoughts of sense-pleasure which have arisen in him; he does not tolerate thoughts of ill-will he does not tolerate thoughts of violence he does not tolerate, rejects, discards, destroys, ectinguishes whatever evil and unwholesome thoughts which have arisen in him. Bhikkhus, if there are any troubles, distresses, and vexations for him when he does not disperse any (of these), those troubles, distresses and vexations would not be for him when he disperses them in this manner. Bhikkus, these are called the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by dispersal.

        7’Bhikkhus, what are the cares and troubles to be got rid of by culture (bbavana)? Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, considering wisely, cultivates mindfulness, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with passionlessness, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; considering wisely, he cultivates the Investigation of the Dhamma, a Factor of Enlightenment Energy, a Factor of Enlightenment Joy, a Factor of Enlightenment Calmness (Relaxation), a Factor of Enlightenment Concentration, a Factor of Enlightenment Equanimity, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with passionlessness, with cessation, maturing into renunciation. Bhikkhus, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for him when he does not cultivate any (of these), those troubles, distresses and vexations would not be for him when he cultivates them in this manner. Bhikkhus, these are called the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by culture.

        ‘Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu in whom the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by insight have been got rid of by insight; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by restraint have been got rid of by restraint; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by use gave been got rid of by use; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by endurance have been got rid of by endurance; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by avoidance have been got rid of by avoidance; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by dispersal have been got rid of by dispersal; the cares and troubles which are to be got rid of by culture have been got rid of by culture—Bhikkhus, it is this bhikkhu who is said to have restrained all cares and troubles; he has cut off craving, struck off his fetters, and by fathoming false pride, has put an end to suffering.’

        Thus spoke the Blessed One. Glad at heart, those bhikkhus rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One.

Majjhima-nikaya, No.2

 

1. The term dsave in this Sutta has wider senscs than its usual psychological and ethical meanings such as ‘influx’, ‘ outflow’ , defilement’,‘impurity’, It is here used figuratively and embraces both psychological cares and physical troubles and difficulties as can be seen in the sequel.

 

 

     

漏盡經

林兆     中譯

如是我聞:當時,世尊正住在舍衛城附近祗陀林孤獨園內一間寺院裡。一次,世尊向各位比丘說法:“比丘啊!他們回應:“尊敬的聖者!世尊便說了以下的話:

“比丘,我要告訴你們解脫煩惱與憂慮的方法(註1),好好地聆聽和考慮。我要開始啦!比丘都回應:“好啊!尊敬的聖者。

世尊說了以下的話:

“比丘,我要說能夠明瞭和洞悉事情的人可以解脫煩惱與憂慮;而那些不能夠明瞭和洞悉事情的人就不可以了。什麼事情要明瞭和洞悉才可以令人解脫煩惱與憂慮呢?這些可以說是關於有智慧的思考和沒智慧的思考。如果一個人不能有智慧地思考,即使從沒有煩憂,也會引來煩憂;而那些已有煩憂的,煩憂就會增加。能夠有智慧地思考,又從沒有煩憂的,就不會引來煩憂;而那些已有煩憂的,煩憂就會消除。

“比丘,(1)有些煩憂可以用洞察力來解脫;(2)有些煩憂可以用克制來解脫;(3)有些煩憂可以用使用來解脫;(4)有些煩憂可以用忍耐來解脫;(5)有些煩憂可以用迴避來解脫;(6)有些煩憂可以用驅除來解脫;(7)有些煩憂可以用修養來解脫。

1)“比丘,什麼煩憂可以用洞察力來解脫呢?比丘,那些沒受過教導的普通人,既未見過聖者們、不熟悉聖者的教誨、不精通聖者的教誨;又未見過善人們、不熟悉善人的教誨、不精通善人的教誨,當然不能分辨什麼事情應該考慮、什麼事情不應該考慮。既然不能分辨什麼事情應該考慮、什麼事情不應該考慮,他們就考慮不應該考慮的事情、沒有考慮應該考慮的事情了。

“比丘,什麼事情不應該考慮而他們卻考慮了呢?這些事情,如果考慮了,會帶來沾汙心中未生之感官享受的污染、而沾汙在已生之感官享受中的污染會更厲害、而沾汙在求生和求變的污染……會帶來沾汙心中未生之無知的污染、而沾汙在已生之無知會更厲害;這就是那些事情不應該考慮而他們卻考慮了。

“比丘,什麼事情應該考慮而他們卻沒有考慮呢?這些事情,如果考慮了,會使那些沾汙心中未生之感官享受的污染不能產生、而沾汙在已生之感官享受中的污染會消散、而沾汙在求生和求變的污染……會使那些沾汙心中未生之無知的污染不能產生、而沾汙在己生之無知會消散;這就是那些事情應該考慮而他們卻沒有考慮。

如果考慮了不應該考慮的事情、卻沒有考慮應該考慮的事情,那麼未生之污染會產生、而已生之污染會更厲害。都是因為他們愚昧地考慮了以下的問題:

1.          在以前,我曾經存在嗎?

2.          在以前,我從沒存在嗎?

3.          在以前,我是什麼?

4.          在以前,我是怎樣的?

5.          在以前,是否因為我曾經是什麼,所以我變成什麼?

6.          在未來,我會存在嗎?

7.          在未來,我不會存在嗎?

8.          在未來,我會是什麼?

9.          在未來,我會怎樣?

10.      在未來,是否因為我曾經是什麼,所以我變成什麼?

或者現在他們對自己有所疑惑:

11.      是否自己?

12.      不是自己?

13.      自己是什麼?

14.      自己是怎樣的?

15.      自己從何而來?

16.      自己將會到什麼地方?

如果他們愚昧地考慮了這些問題,以下六種邪見其中一種會產生:

1.          我有自我,生這邪見以為真實正確。

2.          我沒有自我,生這邪見以為真實正確。

3.          從自我那裡我認識自我,生這邪見以為真實正確。

4.          從自我那裡我認識沒有自我,生這邪見以為真實正確。

5.          從沒有自我,我因而認識自我,生這邪見以為真實正確。

6.          或者另外一種邪見會這樣產生:這個我能說話能感覺,又能體驗一時在這、一時在那的、好的或壞的行為所帶來的結果:這個我是永恆的、穩定的、不變的、永遠仍是那麼樣。

比丘,那就叫做陷入邪見的藩網中:主見好像森林、荒野一樣,各種邪見纏結在一起、互相激鬥、互相束縳。比丘,那些沒受過教導的普通人,讓這些互相束縳的邪見困擾著,使他們不能從生、老、死解脫出來;也不能從悲傷、痛楚、憂鬱、失望解脫出來。我可以說:他們不能從苦解脫出來。

比丘,那些受過教導的普通人,既見過聖者們、熟悉聖者的教誨、精通聖者的教誨;又見過善人們、熟悉善人的教誨。精通善人的教誨,當然能夠分辨什麼事情應該考慮、什麼事情不應該考慮。既然能夠分辨什麼事情應該考慮、什麼事情不應該考慮,他們就考慮應該考慮的事情、沒有考慮不應該考慮的事情了。

比丘,什麼事情不應該考慮而他們也沒有考慮呢?這些事情,如果考慮了,會帶來沾汙心中未生之感官享受的污染、而沾汙在已生之感官享受中的污染會更厲害、而沾汙在求生和求變的污染……會帶來沾汙心中未生之無知的污染、而沾汙在已生之無知會更厲害;這就是那些事情不應該考慮而他們也沒有考慮了。

比丘,什麼事情應該考慮而他們也考慮了呢?這些事情,如果考慮了,會使那些沾汙心中未生之感官享受的污染不能產生、而沾汙在已生之感官享受中的污染會消散、而沾汙在求生和求變的污染……會使那些沾汙心中未生之無知的污染不能產生、而沾汙在已生之無知會消散;這就是那些事情應該考慮而他們也考慮了。

如果沒有考慮不應該考慮的事情、又考慮了應該考慮的事情,這樣會使那些沾汙心中未生之感官享受的污染不能產生、而沾汙在已生之感官享受中的污染會消散。這就是因為他們能夠明智地考慮問題:這就是苦;他們能明智地考慮問題:這就是苦集;他們能夠明智地考慮問題:這就苦滅;他們能明智考慮問題:這就是帶領到苦滅之道路。如果他們能夠像這樣明智地考慮問題,我見、疑見、戒禁取見這三種邪見都會消逝。比丘,這些就是可以用洞察力來解脫的煩憂。

(2)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用克制來解脫呢?

比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、生活中克制地用眼睛。那麼,如果在生活他沒有克制地用眼睛,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他克制地用眼睛,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。

明智地思考、生活中克制地用眼睛……克制地用鼻……用舌……用身體……用思想。那麼,如果在生活中他沒有克制地用思想,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他克制地用思想,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用克制來解脫的煩憂。

(3)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用使用來解脫呢?比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、使

用他的長袍只是為了避開寒冷、燠熱、牛虻、蚊子、風雨、暴曬、爬蟲,當然包括好好地覆蓋自己。他明智地思考、使用他的食物,不是為了享樂或者醉、更不是為了好看或者裝飾,只不過是為了維持這個肉體、不讓它受傷,好使它能夠培育如感覺這樣的神聖生活。那麼,我消除了已經存在的折磨或者饑餓的感覺,而且不會產生新的感覺;於是,我可以肯定我的生活是無疚和方便的。他明智地思考、使用他的居所只是為了避開寒冷、燠熱、牛虻、蚊子、風雨、暴曬、爬蟲,以及免除季節性災害甚至進行隠居。他明智地思考、使用他的藥物和醫療需要只是為了消除不時的痛楚或者疾病、以及保持他的健康。比丘,那麼,如果在生活中他沒有使用這些事情,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒,當他使用這些事情,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用使用來解脫的煩憂。

(4)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用忍耐來解脫呢?比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、抵

受著寒冷、燠熱、饑餓、口渴、牛虻、蚊子、風雨、暴曬、爬蟲、侮辱性以及傷害性的語言;而且習慣了忍受身體上的感覺,這些感覺是痛苦的、偏頗的、尖銳的、嚴苛的、悲哀的、難堪的、致命的。比丘,那麼,如果在生活中他沒有使用這些事情,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他這樣忍受這些事情,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用忍耐來解脫的煩憂。

(5)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用迴避來解脫呢?比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、迴

避了野象、野馬、野牛、野狗、野蛇,也迴避了樹椿、荊棘、洞穴、懸崖、垃圾堆、以至泥沼。一個比丘明智地思考、他也會迴避不適當的地方;如果常常去這些不適當的場所,因而結交損友,以至跟他一起修習神聖生活而且謹言慎行的比丘認為他已經迷失方向。比丘,那麼,如果在生活中他沒有迴避這些事情,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他迴避這些事情,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用迴避來解脫的煩憂。

(6)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用驅除解脫呢?比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、不會

容忍、堅拒、捨棄、消除、毀滅那些沾念著心中生起之感樂受的思想;不會容忍……惡毒的思想;不會容忍……狂暴的思想;不會容忍、堅拒、捨棄、消除、毀滅任何心中生起之邪惡和腐敗的思想。比丘,那麼,如果在生活中他沒有驅除這些事情,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他驅除這些事情,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用驅除來解脫的煩憂。

(7)    比丘,什麼煩憂可以用修養來解脫呢?比丘,一個比丘明智地思考、養

成警覺,這是一種覺悟因素,它引致疏離、冷靜、止息進而拋棄;明智地思考、養成佛法研究,這也是一種覺悟因素……。動力,這也是一種覺悟因素……。喜悅,這也是一種覺悟因素……。安寧,這也是一種覺悟因素……。專注,這也是一種覺悟因素……。平和,這也是一種覺悟因素,它引致疏離、冷靜、止息進而拋棄。比丘,那麼,如果在生活中他沒有養成這些事情,會給他帶來煩惱、悲傷、憤怒。如果在生活中他養成這些事情,這些煩惱、悲傷、憤怒都不會發生在他身上。比丘,這些就是可以用修養來解脫的煩憂。

比丘,他自己要用洞察力來解脫的煩憂已用洞察力解脫了;要用克制來解脫的煩憂已用克制解脫了;要用使用來解脫的煩憂已用使用解脫了;要用忍耐來解脫的煩憂已用忍耐解脫了;要用迴避來解脫的煩憂已用迴避解脫了;要用驅除來解脫的煩憂已用驅除解脫了;要用修養來解脫的煩憂已用修養解脫了。比丘,這位比丘既解脫了所有煩憂,他已經切斷渴求、砍掉束縳而且徹悟浮華,可以說已能斷苦了。

這就是世尊所說的,五位比丘聽後都很高興,為世尊的說法欣喜。

 

(中部,No.  2•)

 

(1)            在這個Sutta裡面asava比一般心理學或者倫理學的詞,像“流

、“流出”、“沾汙”、“不潔”帶有更多的意思。這裡用了比喻的意思,包含了心理的煩惱和身體的毛病;這意思可從跟在後面的文意看得出來。